2020年3月17日 星期二

AWS 學習筆記 (四) : AWS Technical Professional 課程筆記

繼續進行第二階段 AWS 線上學習課程, 這是 AWS 核心技術 (Core technology) 部分 (需先註冊 APN partner 帳號) :

# AWS Technical Professional (Digital : 編號 45423)

以下為邊上課邊紀錄的摘要筆記 :


module 1:

此模組為簡介, 主要是介紹整個課程的學習目標, 例如 AWS 核心技術 (服務與特性), 如何將 AWS 服務應用在客戶解決方案 (customer solutions), 以及如何採用 AWS 架構與成本優化措施來達成最佳實作等等.

POCs (proof of cencepts) :


module 2:

此模組介紹 AWS 核心技術 (core technology).

On-Premises IT :
指軟硬體 (包含伺服器, 資料儲存, 以及應用程式) 放在本地機房內執行的 IT 運作模式, 這是相對於雲端的 Off-Premises IT 而言, 故意可稱為 "地端" IT.

Cloud computing :
on-demand delivery of compute power, database, storage, applications, and other IT resources via the Internet with pay-as-you-go pricing.

雲端的好處 :
  • 可將資本支出轉為其他用途
  • 經濟規模 (economies of scale) 可支持 pay-as-you-go 收費方式 
  • 不需再猜測需求容量 (stop guessing capacity)
  • 提升速度與敏捷性 (increase speed and agility)
  • 不需再花錢營運資料中心
  • 須臾之間即可全球化
AWS 全球基礎設施 :
  • AWS 目前的 22 個 Regions 是彼此完全獨立的 (isolated).
  • 每個 Region 中的每個 AZ 也是獨立的, 彼此之間以高速低延遲光纖互聯, AWS 目前有 69 個 AZ.
  • AWS 目前有 199 個 Edge locations. 
AWS 的核心技術 (coretechnologies) :
  • Compute
  • Storage
  • Database
  • Security
  • Management
  • Networking



AWS Compute service :
  • EC2 : resizable compute instance
  • EC2 auto-scaling : increase/decrease running instances
  • ELB : distribute incoming traffic
  • Lambda : run code in response to events
  • Elastic container : run applications in a managed cluster (Docker)
AWS 的 auto-scaling 可按照設定條件自動新增或縮減執行實體 instance 的數量, 也可以根據預測 (predictive) 動態調整, 它會隨時監視每個實體的健康狀態並自動替換損壞的實體, 且會跨 AZ 來平衡 instances 的容量.

AWS EC2 的計算實體 (instance) 類型有三類 : A, T, M 開頭

AWS ELB 有三種類型 :
  • Application load balancer (在 app 層分流, 例如 http)
  • Network load balancer (network 層)
  • Classic load balancer (classic instances)
AWS WBS :
  • 與 AWS EC2 instance 互為獨立的大容量網路磁碟 (network-attached)
  • 建立後會在該 AZ 內自動備份 (automatically replicate)
  • EBS 可與 AZ 內的任何 instance 相連且只能連一個 instance
  • 但一個 instance 卻可連接多個 EBS 容量
  • 即使 instance 結束 EBS 裡的資料仍然存在
  • 可將 EBS 的快照 (snapshot) 儲存至 S3 作為救援或跨 AZ 遷移之用
AWS S3 (Simple Storage Service) :
  • 可無限擴充的物件儲存 (object storage)
  • 物件大小最高可允許 5TB
  • 99.999999999% durability 與 99.99% availability
  • 可用作儲存與備份, 也可做應用程式與媒體主機, 或軟體遞送
  • S3 既可用來儲存 active data, 也可以用來存 infrequent accessed data, 低成本之 S3 Glacier 通常用來儲存不常用之資料 (archive)
AWS Database :
  • RDS 提供六種常用的關聯式資料庫服務 MariaDB, SQL Server, MySQL, Aurora 等 
  • DynamoDB 為 NoSQL 資料庫
  • ElastiCache 資料快取 (記憶體儲存)
  • 自動備份與復原功能
AWS Networking :
  • VPC 用來建立雲端虛擬網路, 具備 Security Group 與 NACL 安全控制
  • Security Group 用來控制對 instance 的存取 (instance level 的訊務控制), 相當於 instance 的防火牆, 一個 instance 可以指定最多 5 個 Security Group
  • NACL (Network Access Control List) 用來控制對 Subnet 的存取 (subnet level 的訊務控制)
  • Route 53 是高效能的 DNS 伺服器, 可將終端使用者接續到互聯網應用
  • VPC 是 EC2 的網路層, 專屬於 AWS 帳戶, 而 Subnet 則是 VPC 內一組 IP 位址範圍
  • Host-based firewall 是 instance 內作業系統的防火牆
  • 首先建立一個 VPC, 然後指定一個範圍的 IP 位址來設定 public 與 private subnet, 利用 NACL 來保護 Subnet. 
  • IAM 用來管理存取 AWS 服務與資源時之安全性問題
  • Cloud security 是 AWS 最重視的問題
  • 在 AWS 資安責任分擔模型 (share resposibility model), AWS 負責雲端本身的資安 (of the cloud), 主要是雲端基礎設施, 包含 Region, AZ, 與 Edge location, 以及核心設施如 Compute, storage, database, network 等; 而客戶與其 APN 夥伴則負責雲端內的資安 (in the cloud), 例如作業系統, 網路, 防火牆設定, 平台, 應用程式, IAM, 以及客戶資料等等. 
AWS Management Interfaces : AWS 提供三種管理介面 :
  • AWS Management console
  • AWS command line (AWS CLI)
  • SDKs

module 3 : from services to solutions 

Migration 的六個 R :
  • Rehost (servers -> instances)
  • Replatform (database -> RDS, applications -> Beanstalk)
  • Refactor (using cloud-native features)
  • Retire (關閉不用的應用程式)
  • Retain (保留部分本地應用)
  • Repurchase (改用 SaaS 工作流程軟體)
Cloud architecture best practices :
  • 靜態網頁應該放在 AWS S3
  • 使用 AWS CloudFront 做全球服務
  • Session state 應該放在 DynamoDB
  • 使用 ElastiCache 儲存 hosts 與 databases
  • 為應用添加更多計算資源, 而非添加計算能力
Well-architected framework :

Five pillars :
  • Operation excellence
  • Security
  • Reliability
  • Performance efficiency
  • Cost optimization
Cost Optimization :
  • Right-sizing instances
  • Increasing elasticity
  • Choosing the right pricing model
  • Optimizing storage 
AWS 案例 : http://aws.amazon.com/solutions/case-studies
AWS 解決方案 : http://aws.amazon.com/solutions
尋找 AWS 解決方案 : http://aws.amazon.com/solutionspace
AWS 快速入手指引 : http://aws.amazon.com/quickstart

AWS Solution 的四個準則 :
  • Secure (安全)
  • Cost efficient (省錢)
  • Scalable (可調整)
  • Compliant (合乎規定)

module 4 : presenting solutions to customers

提出 AWS 解決方案的三個步驟 (phases) :
  • Discovery (研究客戶的背景, 例如產業地位, 競爭對手等等)
  • Presenting the solution (challenges and goals)
  • Delivering a POC
與客戶會談技巧 :
  • 問 targeted questions : 腦力激盪
  • 問 open-ended questions : 避免 yes-no 問題
  • 問五個 why
  • 利用白板紀錄討論重點, 使工作流程圖像化
  • 要提出 POC (Proof Of Concepts)
向客戶提案的撇步 (best practices) :
  • 自備白板筆與板擦
  • 保持客戶視線通暢, 勿擋住白板
  • 與客戶保持眼神接觸 (maintain eye contacts)
  • 保持白板上的繪圖簡潔清楚
處理客戶異議 (objections) 原則 :
  • 在前進到下一步前要先處理 (address) 異議
  • 雖不同意但要表示理解 (acknowledge) 客戶之異議 (I understand ...)
  • 挑出問題核心 (isolate the problems and make them concise) 
處理客戶異議撇步 (best practice) :
  • data-driven approach (秀出堅實的數據證據來支持你的論點)
  • use case studies (以類似客戶的實例來加強說服力)
  • dive deep (發掘客戶之 root concerns 並使其放心)
  • have backbone (以證據展現對提案的信心)
  • keep the momentum going 
關於節省成本方面的異議處理 :
  • 可使 TOC (Total Ownership of Cost, 總擁有成本) 降低
  • 可使支出不斷優化 (optimized) 且可預測 (predictable)
  • 不再需要為了預備高峰需求而過度擴充 (over-provision) IT 設施
  • 範例 : GE 油氣公司改用 AWS 後 TCO 減少了 52%
向客戶提案時的 Not to do :
  • 不要用 definitely, never, 與 guaranteed (輕諾必寡信, no over-promise)
  • 不要用縮略字 (acronyms) 或技術用語 (technical jargon)
  • 不要聚焦在技術上, 應以客戶為中心, 了解其企業目標 
  • 不要著眼於短中期目標, 應提出長期可持續之目標
  • 不要讀螢幕簡報, 應與客戶保持眼神接觸 
POC (Proof Of Concept) : 實際在 AWS 上跑客戶的應用給他們看
  • a small scale, practical example of proposed solution (pilot run)
  • evaluation mechanism (看哪裡需要調整)
  • educational tool (重點是要符合客戶的商業需求)
建構 POC 前須收集的資料 :
  • networking and security
  • application code
  • databases
  • data
POA (Partner Opportunity of Acceleration)  Program : 加速銷售週期


module 5 : looking ahead

遷移到 AWS 的過程 (migration process) :
  • Assessment 
  • Readiness and planning
  • Migration
  • Optimizations and Operations
MVP (Minimum Viable Product, 最小可行產品) : 先建立一個最基本可運作的系統, 讓客戶一開始就能看到進展與效果, 再根據回饋調整或加入新功能, 而不是要等到很長一段時間後才能確定方案是否有效 (不要這種 big bang 解決方案). MVP 與 POC 的差別是, POC 是給客戶的快速展示 (quick demo); 而 MVP 則屬於產品階段 (production level).

Migration 類型 :
  • rehost (更換主機)
  • replatform (切換平台)
  • refactor (重新新設計, 要花比較多時間)
評估架構是否完善 (well-architected) 的五個面向 (5 pillars) :
  • operational excellence
  • security
  • reliability
  • performance efficiency
  • cost optimization
架構現代化 (modernization of architecture) 的方法 :
  • serverless
  • containers
  • data lakes and analytics
AWS 資料分析方案 :
  • Interactive analytics : Amazon Athena
  • Big data processing : Amazon EMR
  • Data warehousing : Amazon Redshift
  • Real-time analysis : Amazon Kinesis
  • Operational analytics : Amazon Elasticsearch service
  • Dashboards and visualization : Amazon QuickSight 

module 6 : APN resources

APN partner 的角色 :

為 AWS 用戶建構解決方案與服務 (build solutions and services for customers), 提供商務 (business), 技術 (technical), 與行銷 (marketing) 協助.

APN Partner 有兩種 :
  • APN technology partner (技術夥伴) : 提供硬體 (hardware), 接續 (connectivity), 以及軟體 (software) 服務.
  • APN consulting partner (顧問夥伴) : 協助客戶設計 (design), 架構 (architech), 建立 (build), 遷移 (migrate), 管理負荷 (work load) 與應用 (application). 

2020-03-20 補充 :

昨天看完此課程後時間不夠, 所以今天早上才做測驗. 與上次課程一樣是 30 題, 不同的是此篇測驗無題號, 每答一題就告訴你答對或答錯, 做完後也可以回顧答題結果, 知道錯在哪裡. 我這是抽到有兩題一樣的, 所以實際答題 29 題, 因為 technical 部分我有認真聽, 所以只答錯一題. 及格標準一樣是 80% :





此次題目參考如下 (每個人抽到的可能不一樣) :

1. Which definition best describes AWS edge location?
ANS: Locations designed to deliver content to end users

2. Which statements actually reflect the principles of the Shared Responsibility Model? (Choose two)
ANS: (1) AWS is responsible for securing the physical network infrastructure
     (2) Customers are responsible for securing their applications and data

3. Whic of the following best describes the functionality of Containers?
ANS: Containers package application's code, configurations, and dependencies into a single object.

4. Which of the following statements are true regarding a well-architected review(choose two)? (此題我答錯)
ANS: (1)
     (2)

5. Which statement best describes Amazon Simple Storage Service Glacier?
ANS: Amazon S3 Glacier is a low-cost object storage service designed for data archiving

6. Which statements are true regarding AWS Partner Network Technology Partner (choose two)?
ANS: (1) APN Technology Partner provide hardware, connectivity services, ans software solutions that are hosted on or integrated with the AWS cloud.
     (2) APN Technology Partners may include independent software vendors (ISVs)

7. Which statement best describes Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC)?
ANS: Amazon VPC acts as a virtual network within which customers can launch AWS resources.

8. Which of the following are advantages of cloud computing (choose two)?
ANS: (1) benefit from massive economies of scale
     (2) increase speed and agility

9. Which statement best describes the AWS Customer Success site?
ANS: It is a resource for finding use cases to help inspire solution design and build confidence with customers.

10. At what level do Security Group provide protection?
ANS: Instance

11. Which definition best describes AWS Availability Zones?
ANS: Isolated locations within a geographical region, containing one or more data centers

12. Which best describes Amazon EC2 "Memory Optimized" instances type?
ANS: Designed to deliver fast performance for workloads that process large data sets in memory.

13. Which of the following statements best describes a Proof of Concept (POC) ?
ANS: A POC is a small scal, practical example of the proposed solution.

14. When meeting with a customer to present a solution, what would be considered best practice(choose two)?
ANS: (1) Bring markers
     (2) Prepare thoroughly

15. Which statement best describes Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS)?
ANS: Amazon EBS provides persistent block level storage volumes for use with Amazon EC2 instances.

16. Whic migration startegy consists of a simple transfer of application resources from an-on-premises data center to the AWS cloud?
ANS: Rehost: lift and shift

17. Which best describes Amazon Elastic Cloud Comput (Amazon EC2) "Compute Optimized" instances types?
ANS: Ideal for compute bound applications that benefit from high performance processors

18. Which statement best describes Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)?
ANS: Amazon S3 is an object storage service that can be used to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time, from anywhere on the web.

19. Which statements are true regarding regarding APN Consulting Partners (choose two)?
ANS: (1) APN Consulting Partners help customers design, architech, build, migrate, and manage their workloads and applications on AWS
     (2) APN Consulting Partners include Managed Service Providers (MSP)

20. Which definition best describes AWS Regions?
AWS: Seperate, isolated geographic areas that contains availability zones.

21. Which migration strategy consists of re-architeching an application, typically using cloud native features?
ANS: Refactor: modernize

22. At what level do Network Access Control List (NACLs) provide protection?
ANS: Subnet

23. When meeting with a customer to gather information about their business chanllenges, what would be considered best practices(choose two)
ANS: (1) Ask open-ended questions
     (2) Focus on listening

24. Which statement best describes the AWS Well-Architected Framework?
ANS: It is a resource to help you design solutions following AWS best practices.

25. Which of the following AWS services could serve as a migration target for an on-premises MySQL database?
ANS: Amazon RDS

26. Which best describes Amazon Elastic Cloud Compute (Amazon EC2) "General Purpose" instance types?
ANS: Provides a balance of compute, memory, and networking resources, and canbe used for a variety of diverse workloads.

27. Which statement best describes APN Partner Central?
ANS: It is a resource providing APN Partners with the tools and content they need to grow their business on AWS.

28. A customer wishes to increase the availability of their cloud-hosted application. Which approaches will help them achieve their goal(choose two)?
ANS: (1) Host application instances on multiple AZs
     (2) Use multiple instances instead of just one

29. Which best describes Amazon Elastic Cloud Compute (Amazon EC2) "General Purpose" instance types?
ANS: Provides a balance of compute, memory, and networking resources, and canbe used for a variety of diverse workloads.

30. Which of the following statements best describes Serverless architechtures?
ANS: Serverless architechtures run applications without provisioning, maintaining, and administering servers.

答錯的第四題正解與總成績如下 :





OK, 剩下最後一個課程 Cloud Economics 了, 加油!

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