2017年2月26日 星期日

在樹莓派上安裝 R 語言

自從去年對 R 語言產生興趣後, 就一直想找時間好好來學習測試. 但想學的東西實在太多了, 時間總是不夠用. 最近聽了兩場機器學習的演講後, 對 R 語言又熱衷起來. 在資料探勘與機器學習這兩個領域上, Python 與 R 語言的使用度非常高, 我非常看好這兩個語言的發展. 參考資料探勘專業網站 KDnuggets 2014~2015 調查結果, R 與 Python 獨占鰲頭, 分別為 51% 與 29%, 合計占 80%, 且持續上升中, 其他語言則逐漸萎縮 :


今天在 "R語言 : 數學計算、統計模型與金融實務分析應用" 這本書上看到 R 語言也可以安裝在 Linux 機器上, 我想應該可以在樹莓派上跑吧! 下午回到鄉下後, 便將 B+ 那塊板子的 SD 卡先做備份, 然後用下列指令進行安裝 :

$ sudo apt-get install r-base

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo apt-get install r-base
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
  libasn1-8-heimdal libgssapi3-heimdal libhcrypto4-heimdal libheimbase1-heimdal libheimntlm0-heimdal libhx509-5-heimdal
  libkrb5-26-heimdal libroken18-heimdal libwind0-heimdal libxfce4ui-1-0 xfce-keyboard-shortcuts
Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
The following extra packages will be installed:
  autotools-dev bzip2-doc cdbs gfortran gfortran-4.9 libblas-dev libbz2-dev libgfortran-4.9-dev libjpeg-dev libjpeg62-turbo-dev
  liblapack-dev liblzma-dev libncurses5-dev libpaper-utils libpaper1 libpcre3-dev libpcrecpp0 libreadline-dev libreadline6-dev
  libtinfo-dev r-base-core r-base-dev r-base-html r-cran-boot r-cran-class r-cran-cluster r-cran-codetools r-cran-foreign
  r-cran-kernsmooth r-cran-lattice r-cran-mass r-cran-matrix r-cran-mgcv r-cran-nlme r-cran-nnet r-cran-rpart r-cran-spatial
  r-cran-survival r-doc-html r-recommended zip
Suggested packages:
  devscripts gfortran-doc gfortran-4.9-doc libgfortran3-dbg liblzma-doc ncurses-doc readline-doc ess r-doc-info r-doc-pdf r-mathlib
  debhelper texlive-base texlive-latex-base texlive-generic-recommended texlive-fonts-recommended texlive-fonts-extra
  texlive-extra-utils texlive-latex-recommended texlive-latex-extra texinfo
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  autotools-dev bzip2-doc cdbs gfortran gfortran-4.9 libblas-dev libbz2-dev libgfortran-4.9-dev libjpeg-dev libjpeg62-turbo-dev
  liblapack-dev liblzma-dev libncurses5-dev libpaper-utils libpaper1 libpcre3-dev libpcrecpp0 libreadline-dev libreadline6-dev
  libtinfo-dev r-base r-base-core r-base-dev r-base-html r-cran-boot r-cran-class r-cran-cluster r-cran-codetools r-cran-foreign
  r-cran-kernsmooth r-cran-lattice r-cran-mass r-cran-matrix r-cran-mgcv r-cran-nlme r-cran-nnet r-cran-rpart r-cran-spatial
  r-cran-survival r-doc-html r-recommended zip
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安裝完畢後用 R (注意是大寫) 即可進入 R 語言命令列, 要跳出  R 回到 Linux 的話則輸入 q() :

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ R

R version 3.1.1 (2014-07-10) -- "Sock it to Me"
Copyright (C) 2014 The R Foundation for Statistical Computing
Platform: arm-unknown-linux-gnueabihf (32-bit)

R is free software and comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY.
You are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions.
Type 'license()' or 'licence()' for distribution details.

  Natural language support but running in an English locale

R is a collaborative project with many contributors.
Type 'contributors()' for more information and
'citation()' on how to cite R or R packages in publications.

Type 'demo()' for some demos, 'help()' for on-line help, or
'help.start()' for an HTML browser interface to help.
Type 'q()' to quit R.

> 1+2
[1] 3
> 1/2
[1] 0.5
> q()
Save workspace image? [y/n/c]: n
pi@raspberrypi:~ $

可見樹莓派支援的是 R 3.1.1 版, 沒想到 R 語言在樹莓派也跑得挺順的, 如果寫個 R Script 放在 Crontab 裡面執行, 不就可以自動進行統計分析與機器學習了嗎? 樹莓派作為一個低功耗可 24 小時開機的 Linux 伺服器, 有了 R 語言可說如虎添翼啊!

大部分的 R 操作可在命令列執行, 但若執行 plot() 等繪圖函數時就必須在 X Window 桌面系統的 Terminal 視窗下才會顯示, 如果是透過 Putty 連線, 則執行 plot() 之後不會顯示圖形.



參考 :

Using R with the Pi
R on the Raspberry Pi

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